A Conference on Annie Besant

Annie Besant

From Leslie Price in England:

Which Theosophist had the biggest impact on Theosophy in England and indeed the world, yet is most neglected today? Not of course H.P.B. who is rightly much studied, but Annie Besant, whose conversion to Theosophy in 1889 so delighted Madame Blavatsky. Annie also made significant contributions to politics, religion, and equality. So, to coincide with her birthday, and with the help of international scholars, the TSE has called a conference on Annie Besant for the weekend 30 September and 1 October 2017. It is worth writing that in your diary now. While the first day will focus on her social activism, the second will look at her Theosophical work.

Even among Theosophists, this event will not be universally popular. For Mrs Besant angered supporters of the American Theosophist William Judge; critics of the English Theosophist Charles Leadbeater; some old pupils of HPB; etc.etc. It should be a lively weekend.






Leadbeater, Bacon and Shakespeare

A number of Theosophical and other occult writers have published works arguing that “that Bacon wrote the plays that pass as Shakespeare’s”. See, for example, Ernest Francis Udny Later Incarnations of Francis Bacon Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton, 1925. For Udny, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/12/17/ernest-francis-udny/

Francis Bacon

Leadbeater also made that claim on the basis of his occult investigations.

I recall being present at one of these investigations when in some way Francis Bacon’s work came to be examined. Knowing who Bacon is today, as one of the Adepts, Bishop Leadbeater felt that to investigate Bacon’s affairs clairvoyantly was like a piece of impertinence. But he did note that Bacon wrote the plays that pass as Shakespeare’s. However, what particularly drew my attention at the time was not that fact, which was fairly obvious to me upon the examination of the evidence, but rather something else which Bishop Leadbeater noted on higher planes. If Bacon is Shakespeare, and also if several other works passing under the names of other authors are also from Bacon’s brain, then, there must have been a terrific creative energy in Bacon at the time. Bishop Leadbeater said that, as he watched, it was as if some wonderful ray from a great creative centre on the inner planes had converged upon Bacon, so that he threw off one work after another in the way of plays, poems, philosophical theses, etc., without any particular effort. This little glimpse into the power of the creative consciousness behind everything was far more fascinating to me than the solution of the Bacon-Shakespeare problem.

Jinarajadasa Occult Investigations. A Description of the Work of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1938:40-41

In “The Lives” research, Bacon (as the Master the Comte de St. Germain) was given the Star Name of Venus.

The Head of the Seventh Ray is the Master the Comte de St. Germain, known to history in the eighteenth century, whom we sometimes call the Master Rakoczy, as He is the last survivor of that royal house. He was Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, in the seventeenth century, Robertus the monk in the sixteenth, Hunyadi Janos in the fifteenth, Christian Rosenkreuz in the fourteenth, and Roger Bacon in the thirteenth; He is the Hungarian Adept of The Occult World. Further back in time He was the great Neoplatonist Proclus and before that St. Alban. He works to a large extent through ceremonial magic, and employs the services of great Angels, who obey Him implicitly and rejoice to do His will. Though He speaks all European and many Oriental languages, much of His working is in Latin, the language which is the especial vehicle of His thought, and the splendour and rhythm of it is unsurpassed by   anything that we know down here. In His various rituals He wears wonderful and many-coloured robes and jewels. He has a suit of golden chain-mail, which once belonged to a Roman Emperor; over it is thrown a magnificent cloak of crimson, with on its clasp a seven-pointed star in diamond and amethyst, and sometimes He wears a glorious robe of violet. Though He is thus engaged with ceremonial, and still works some of the rituals of the Ancient Mysteries, even the names of which have long been forgotten in the outer world, He is also much concerned with the political situation in Europe and the growth of modern physical science.

C.W. Leadbeater The Masters and The Path Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 2nd edition, 1927

For a contrary Theosophical view, see: https://blavatskytheosophy.com/francis-bacon-a-great-adept-and-theosophist/

Sir Francis Bacon is sometimes spoken of by students of Theosophy as having been a great Adept, Theosophist, Occultist, even as being Christian Rosenkreuz, founder of the Rosicrucians, himself, and as having a connection with the Brotherhood or Lodge of those Masters who are behind the modern Theosophical Movement.

It is also sometimes claimed that Bacon was the real author of most, if not all, of the plays of William Shakespeare.

These ideas are widely accepted in some groups, primarily the followers of the pseudo-theosophical distortions of such people as C.W. Leadbeater, Annie Besant, Alice Bailey, and Benjamin Creme.

Theosophists who study and respect H.P. Blavatsky and the real Mahatmas ought to acquaint themselves with the actual Theosophical position – on this, as on all other matters – as it appears to be completely different to the above and to contradict such notions.


Leadbeater and Astrology

One subject of passing interest to Leadbeater and a short-lived area of his occult investigation, although little publicised, was astrology.

I must not forget to mention an unusual investigation which is interesting because it revealed the true spiritual significance of astrology. Most astrologers today look upon their science from the standpoint of gaining indications of favourable or unfavourable aspects for undertakings. But when the inner meaning of astrology is understood, modern astrology appears very much as a mere bony skeleton compared to the living body. It was through occult investigation that a glimpse was obtained of real astrology.

Among the Theosophists in London were two astrologers, Mr. Alan Leo and Mrs. Bessie Leo. They were both greatly devoted to Dr. Besant, but as I shall narrate, felt a profound gratitude to Bishop Leadbeater for what he did for them. Mr. Alan Leo had not had the opportunity of much higher education but he was (and possibly for the lack of that) very intuitive. Though Mrs. Leo was also intuitive, he was the more intuitive of the two. He was remarkable for an unusual understanding of the significance of the various indications received from his astrological charts. He felt convinced that modern astrology is only the outer husk of something far grander, and he and his wife asked Bishop Leadbeater if he could not in any way assist them.

As I have already narrated, the first investigation into past lives began with a life of Mr. John Varley, where he was a Chaldean priest, and performed a ceremony of invocation of the Star Spirits. Bishop Leadbeater had therefore already a touch with a period of the long past in Chaldea. At that epoch, Chaldean civilization had a religion which, in its higher aspects, was a worship of the Planetary Logoi and Star Spirits, and in its lower, a system of rules for conduct guided by the position of the planets. The religion was full of gorgeous ceremonial, and little by little he investigated this religion of astrology in ancient Chaldea.

The material thus supplied meant a great revelation to the Leos. It made them more mystical and fuller of insight, and was indeed the beginning of the striking contribution to astrology given by both, and particularly by Alan Leo. These investigations were first published in The Theosophical Review [The Theosophical Review, February, March, April 1900] and were later incorporated into Man: Whence, How and Whither, Chapter XIII.

Some day in the future, when once again the Third or Astrological Ray will influence mankind, true astrology will be the predominating religion of man-kind. But it will be really a religion, that is, a worship, and not this modern time-table astrology beyond which its professors do not seem to be able to pass. True astrology begins when a man knows who is his “Father Star”, and reaches out in aspiration towards the Planetary Logos of his Ray, or to some representative of that great Being. While a man will use the forces, which the combination of the spheres will give him, to find out the best way to achieve a result, yet his highest life will be in communion with his Father Star. It is this inner vision of astrology which was given to Alan Leo which enabled him to theosophise astrology.\

Jinarajadasa Occult Investigations. A Description of the Work of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1938:63-66

Leadbeater’s writings on astrology are found in Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater Man: Whence, How and Whither. A Record of Clairvoyant Investigation Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1913: 192-106. A digital version of the 1947 reprint of Man: Whence, How and Whither, Chapter XIII can be found on-line at: https://archive.org/stream/manwhencehowandw031919mbp/manwhencehowandw031919mbp_djvu.txt and the text can also be found at: http://www.anandgholap.net/Man_Whence_How_And_Whither-CWL.htm

The idea that it is possible for the physical planets themselves to have any influence over human affairs was of course never held by any of the priests or teachers, nor even, so far as we can see, by the most ignorant of the common people at the early period of which we are now speaking. The theory given to the priests was an exceedingly elaborate mathematical one, probably handed down to them through an unbroken line of tradition from earlier teachers, who had direct and first-hand knowledge of the great facts of nature. The broad idea of their scheme is not difficult to grasp, but it seems impossible in our three dimensions to construct any mathematical figure which will satisfy the requirements of their hypothesis in all its details at least with the knowledge at present at our disposal.

The entire solar system, then, in all its vast complexity, was regarded as simply one great Being, and all its parts as partial expressions of Him. All its physical constituents the sun with his worderful corona, all the planets with their satellites, their oceans, their atmospheres, and the various ethers surrounding them all these collectively made up His physical body, the expression of Him on the physical plane. In the same way the collective astral worlds (not only the astral spheres belonging to these physical planets, but also the purely astral planets of all the chains of the system such, for example, as planets B and F of our own Chain) made up His astral body, and the collective worlds of the mental plane were His mental body the vehicle through which He manifested Himself upon that particular plane.

 So far the idea is clear, and corresponds closely with what we have ourselves been taught with regard to the great LOGOS of our system. Now let it be supposed that in these ‘bodies’ of His at their various levels there are certain different classes or types of matter fairly equally distributed over the whole system. These types do not at all correspond to our usual division into subplanes a division which is made according to the degree of density of the matter, so that in the physical world, for example, we get the solid, liquid, gaseous and etheric conditions of matter. On the contrary, they constitute a totally distinct series of cross-divisions, each containing matter in all these different conditions, so that if we denote the various types by numbers, we should have solid, liquid, and gaseous matter of the first type, solid, liquid and gaseous matter indeed, we may sat at once that the Chaldean theory upon these subjects was practically that which is held by many Theosophists at the present day. Mr. C. W. Leadbeater, in A Textbook of Theosophy and The Hidden Side of Things, has made, as the result of his own investigations, a statement on planetary influences which is to all intents and purposes identical with the belief held thousands of years ago (as the result of similar investigations) by the Chaldaean priests of the second type, and so on all the way through.

Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater Man: Whence, How and Whither. A Record of Clairvoyant Investigation Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1913:192-194

Alan leo photo

Alan Leo (William Frederick Allan)(1860-1917) and his wife Bessie (Ada Elizabeth Murray Allan nee Phillips)(1858-1931) were both astrologers and Theosophists in London. Leo had joined the Society in 1890, Mrs Leo in 1892, and in 1915 he founded the Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society in London. He had been chosen by Mrs Besant as one of the founders of Co-Freemasonry in England, rising to the 30th degree in 1908.

In 1908 Leo was a member of the Executive of the British Section of the Theosophical Society that voted in support of the reinstatement of Leadbeater to membership of the Theosophical Society following the 1906 scandals: see https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2017/01/02/the-other-1908-committee-again/


For Leo, see: http://www.skyscript.co.uk/Alan_Leo.html and http://www.astrolodge.co.uk/articles/an-astrological-article

Leo was the author of numerous works on astrology. A bibliography of his major works can be found at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Leo

esoteric astrology (2)

For the Astrological Lodge, see: http://www.astrolodge.co.uk/history-of-the-lodge


See also: Bessie Leo The Life and Work of Alan Leo, Theosophist, Astrologer, Mason London: “Modern Astrology” Office, 1919 [Foreword by Annie Besant] Digital version available on-line at: https://archive.org/details/lifeworkofalanle00leob




Leadbeater’s Final Work on Christianity

Leadbeater’s final work on Christianity has long remained something of a mystery. It exists in manuscript form, under the title “An Enquiry Into The Failure of Christianity”, in the Theosophical Society Library at Adyar: L*091 Lea AF

The work has supposedly already published as “The Christian Gnosis” or “A Christian Gnosis” – see my comments at https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/10/27/christian-gnosis/ and https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/12/28/an-enquiry-into-the-failure-of-christianity/ and https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/05/23/leadbeaters-christian-trilogy/

One of the benefits of this blog has been the number of people who have contacted me (often requesting a strict assurance of anonymity) to provide me with unpublished material, or references to previously unknown sources.

One “informant” (to revert to my original discipline of anthropology), reading of my interest in the matter, offered – on conditions of strictest confidentiality, oaths of secrecy written in blood…well, not quite, but all very CIA-M16-Watergate like – to make available to me a copy of Leadbeater’s original manuscript, via a courier. I have now returned it to my informant, via a courier (international, and very expensive), having copied and/or scanned the whole work, with some difficulties in quality, given the problems of copying/scanning copies, often of poor quality.

Scan_20170313 (4)

The work is truly tedious and theologically primitive, and largely theologically and historically illiterate, not to mention very poorly written. By the time that he finished this work, Leadbeater was in serious decline. But, of course, the work is interesting. Reading the manuscript, it is obvious why neither the St Alban Press nor Quest was prepared to publish the original text, even with very judicious editing.

Chapter Title
1 Why is Christianity not more successful?
2 God’s Attitude to Man
3 The Scheme called Salvation
4 “Eternal” and “Everlasting”
5 The Descent into Matter
6 The Method of Human Progress
7 Reincarnation
8 A Rational Creed
9 The Real Meaning of Salvation
10 The Inner Teaching of Early Christianity
11 Salvation
12 The Father Almighty
13 The Son
14 The Incarnation
15 The Crucifixion
16 The Descent into Hell
17 The Resurrection
18 The Ascension
19 The Holy Ghost
20 The Holy Catholic Church, The Communion of Saints
21 The Remission of Sins
22 The Resurrection of the Dead

It would be fascinating to publish an annotated version of the original of this strange work purporting to be on Christianity – I may work on it gradually, linking it to Leadbeater’s other works relating to his confused understanding of Christianity.


“Occult Investigations” Annotated

Jinarajadasa published a number of important works describing Leadbeater’s occult research. One of the most significant was: C. Jinarajadasa Occult Investigations. A Description of the Work of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1938, 137p. A text version of the work is available on-line at: http://www.minhtrietmoi.org/Theosophy/Jinaradasa/OCCULT%20INVESTIGATIONS.htm

This work provides a more-or-less chronological account of Leadbeater’s “occult investigations” with descriptions of how they were undertaken. The following is an outline of the contents of Occult Investigations. The numbers used here are not found in the original work, which is not divided into numbered chapters or sections.

I am now working on an annotated version of Jinarajadasa’s Occult Investigations.

Scan_20170313 (2)

Explanatory notes will be added to Jinarajadasa’s description of the occult investigations work (e.g. identification of those only described by “Star Names”; brief biographies of important characters; brief outlines of the historical context in which the investigations were undertaken; and references to works in which the research was subsequently published).

Some of Leadbeater’s occult research is not included in Jinarajadasa’s volume, including that on the chakras. Fortunately, details of that research can be found in Kurt Leland Rainbow Body. A History of the Western Chakra System from Blavatsky to Brennan Ibis Press, Lake Worth FL, 2016:183-210. Additional important missing research is that relating to life after death, the effects of incense, Freemasonry and “The Science of the Sacraments”.

Similarly, Leadbeater’s research into the “individualization of cats” is not included in Occult Investigations but was written about at some length by Jinarajadasa elsewhere. There is even a letter written by Leadbeater to some elderly woman enquirer about the post-mortem state of her beloved Tom cat; he assured her that, in a future life when the cat (whose post-mortem state he had investigated) had evolved into a human being, they would meet again and recognize one another.

Details of the “missing research” will be added to this work using Roman numerals – e.g. i, ii, iii… – to indicate that it is not found in the original volume.

1. The first meeting of Besant and Leadbeater [1894]

2. The Astral Plane Manual [1894]

3. Investigations into past lives

3.1 Mr and Mrs John Varley [1894]

3.2 Colonel Olcott (“Ulysses”)[1895]

3.3 Arthur Wells (“Abel”) [1895]

3.4 Alexander Fullerton (“Alastor”)[1903]

3.4 “Ursa” [1903]

3.5 Miss A.J. Willson (“Arcor”)[1907]

3.6 Miss Esther Bright (“Bee”) [1907]

3.7 Miss Francesca Arundale (“Spica”)[1907]

3.8 “Orion” [1907]

3.9 “Mizar”

3.10 “Naga”

3.11 “Amal”

3.12 “Not yet published”: “Alastor”, “Melete”, “Concord”, “Auson”, “Laxa”, “Vale”

3.13 The Lives of Alcyone [1908-1914]

3.14 Why Lives of Alcyone were held back [1914]

3.15 The Band of Servers

3.16 The Last Zoroaster [1911]

3.17 Two techniques of investigation

3.18 Savonarola and Bruno

3.19 The Law of Karma

4.  Maps of Atlantic and Lemuria

5.  The Gospel Narrative [1897-1898]

6.  Did Jesus live 100BC?

7. Jesus Christ and Pontius Pilate

8.  Bacon and Shakespeare

9. The Devachanic Plane manual [1896]

10. An Occult Incident

11. The Great Waves

12. Investigations into Early Rounds

13. The Present within the Past

14. The Maya Doctrine

15. Man: When, How and Whither [1909]

16. Dr Besant renounces her clairvoyance [1913]

17. Vision in 1915 of the Victory of the Allies [1915]

18.  Krishnamurti’s Second Initiation [1912]

19.  Objective clairvoyance

20. The cancer cell [1906]

21. The smallpox germ

22. Full use of discovered data

23. Thought forms

24. The detective and the clairvoyant [1894]

25. The occult basis of astrology

26. Astrology as a spiritual religion

27.Occult Chemistry

27.1 Occult Chemistry in 1895 [1895]

27.2 Clairvoyant magnification

27.3 Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

27.4 UPA – the “Ultimate Physical Atom”

27.5 Elements No. 2 and No. 3

27.6 Occult Chemistry in 1907 [1907]

27.7 Bishop Leadbeater’s Contribution

27.8 Dr Besant’s Contribution

27.9 C. Jinarajadasa as Draftsman

27.10 Radium

27.11 Occult Chemistry in 1909

27.12 Isotopes discovered in 1907

27.13 A fourth inter-periodic group

27.14 C. Jinarajadasa’s forecast

27.15 99 Elements, not 92

27.16 C. Jinarajadasa’s model

27.17 Discovery at a distance

27.18 Occult Chemistry in 1919

27.19 Models of the molecules of water and salt

27.10 “God Geometrizes”

27.11 The structure of benzene, naphthalene and anthracene

27.12 The structure of diamond

27.13 Crooke’s astral laboratory

27.14 Artificial and natural Erbium

27.15 Polonium

27.16 Lost opportunities

27.17 Why the Adepts refuse to give proofs

27.18 Catalysis

27.19 Deuterium

28.20 The last investigation in 1933

28.21 No “next year”

28.22 Third edition of “Occult Chemistry”

28.23 Is there any corroboration?

28.24 The aims of the investigators

28.25 The face of the Grand Geometrician

29. Three Men of “C.W.L.”

29.1 C. Jinarajadasa

29.2 J. Krishnamurti

29.3 D. Rajagopalachary

30. “C.W.L.”




The People behind “The Stars”

While writing something of a commentary on C. Jinarajadasa Occult Investigations. A Description of the Work of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1938, I needed to identify some of those behind the “Star Names” used in Leadbeater’s past live research – see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/05/16/in-the-lives-in-the-lives/  The number of characters, and thus “Star Names”, reached 281, according to Jinarajadasa.


The notebook filled by my research assistant when I was at Adyar, Gregory Robertson, was the essential resource. Together we identified all the people behind “The Stars”, except for “Scorpio”. The reason that the identity of “Scorpio” remains unknown is explained in:  https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/05/16/in-the-lives-in-the-lives/


Krishna’s Perfect Physical Cleanliness

In June 1910, Leadbeater claimed to have received a communication from the Master regarding Krishnamurti and his brother, Nityananda, with peculiarly specific details regarding their care, in response to his concerns about their father’s influence, he having, according to Leadbeater, lost his sanity and fallen under the influence of “the Blacks”:

They [Krishnamurti and Nityananda] have lived long in hell; try to show them something of paradise. I want them to have everything the opposite of those previous conditions. Instead of hostility, distrust, misery, squalor, irregularity, carelessness and foulness, I want them surrounded by an atmosphere of love and happiness, confidence, regularity, perfect physical cleanliness and mental purity…. Keep them as far as you can within your aura and Annie’s, so that they may be protected from all evil and carnal thoughts…. I want you to civilise them; to teach them to use spoons and forks, nail brushes and toothbrushes, to sit at ease upon chairs instead of crouching on the ground, to sleep rationally on a bed, not in a corner like a dog. Long hours of sleep are specially necessary, but take care they do not sleep in the pyjamas that are responsible for so much evil in your civilisation. Underclothes must always be of silk, linen or cloth and no wool or flannel must touch the skin. No undue tightness must be permitted anywhere, and the shape of the foot must on no account be spoiled. Keep their heads always cool, and whenever possible uncovered. His [Krishna’s] body must be developed to be straight and strong, agile and muscular, with soldierly carriage, deep chest and great lung power. The most scrupulous cleanliness under all conditions is of primary importance. Mary Lutyens Krishnamurti. The Years of Awakening John Murray, London, 1975:41-42


Pupil Jayakar, in her biography of Krishnamurti, declared that:

It is inconceivable that a Master of wisdom – who was also a Kashmiri Brahmin – could have written this letter, loaded as it is with colonial overtones and with its obviously Victorian bias. The contempt with which the British in India regarded Indian culture and living habits is evident in this letter. It was written at a time when the South Indian man, woman, and child, rich or poor, sat and slept on a mat on the floor, and where the joint family provided warmth and a sense of belonging rare in the West

It is also difficult to believe that the brothers were dirty in their habits; as Brahmins, they must have bathed several times a day. Ritual bathing preceded by an oil bath was a discipline closely followed. The teeth were regularly cleaned by the twig of a neem tree, perhaps the best disinfectant that exists; daily clothes washing must also have been part of the regular chores of the household. Pupil Jayakar Krishnamurti. A Biography Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1986:26

Just how Leadbeater received thus curious communication is unclear. No text of a miraculously “precipitated” letter has ever been published, although Jayakar refers to “this letter”. Clairaudience? Clairsentience? Automatic writing? Trance mediumship (as in his early days with Sinnett) and, if so, who transcribed the message?

As Mary Lutyens commented:

It was it was Leadbeater’s insistence on this ‘scrupulous cleanliness’, particularly on the European custom of bathing naked and washing between the legs, that caused so much unpleasant gossip at Adyar. Leadbeater doubtless showed Krishna how to wash in this way but both Krishna and Nietzsche are always maintained that there had never been the slightest hint of immorality. Mary Lutyens Krishnamurti. The Years of Awakening John Murray, London, 1975:42.

Responsibility for the boys’ personal hygiene and cleanliness was, at this time, delegated to Russell (Dick) Balfour-Clarke, as he recalled in his memoir: R. Balfour Clarke The Boyhood of Krishnamurti Chetana, Bombay, 1977:6-9. He also recalled, when I interviewed him at Adyar in 1979, that Leadbeater’s preoccupation with naked bodily washing, and especially the cleansing of the genitals, caused scandal (and, as Dick described it, “misunderstanding”) when it became known to, or was, on rare occasions, seen by, Orthodox Hindus at Adyar.




Jinarajadasa’s Published Works

Jinarajadasa’s published works include:

The Problem of Problems. For Private Circulation Only (no date)

Dr Besant and the Teaching of Krishnaji (no date)

The Smaller Buddhist Catechism 1901 Compiled by C.W. Leadbeater, translated by C. Jinarajadasa – text available on-line at: http://www.theosophical.ca/adyar_pamphlets/AdyarPamphlet_No41.pdf

Art As a Factor in the Soul’s Evolution 1905

Christ and Buddha, and Other Sketches: from the Children’s page of “The Theosophic Messenger” 1908

The Vision of the Spirit 1911

Occult Chemistry: Investigations by Clairvoyant Magnification 1908

In His Name 1913

Flowers and Gardens (A Dream Structure) 1913

Theosophy and Modern Thought 1914

How We Remember Our Past Lives: and other essays on reincarnation 1915

What We Shall Teach 1915

Occult Guidance in Theosophical Work 1915

The Message of the Future 1916

The Nature of Mysticism 1917

White Lotus Day 1917

The Lord’s Work 1918

The Heritage of Our Fathers 1918

Letters from the Masters of the Wisdom 1881-1888 1919 – digital version available on-line at: http://blavatskyarchives.com/theosophypdfs/jinarajadasa_Letters_from_the_masters_of_the_wisdom_1.pdf

Theosophy and Reconstruction 1919

The Theosophical Outlook: Being the four convention lectures delivered in Calcutta at the forty-second anniversary of the Theosophical Society, December, 1917 1919

Theosophy and An Ideal Australia 1920?

The Faith That is the Life 1920

Christ the Logos 1920

The Meeting of the East and the West 1921

The Vision of the Spirit 1921

Theosophy and Modern Thought: Four lectures delivered at the thirty-ninth annual convention of the Theosophical Society, held at Adyar, Madras, December, 1914 1921

The History of Reincarnation 1921

First Principles of Theosophy 1922

Theosophy and World-Problems: Being the four convention lectures delivered in Benares at the 46th anniversary of the Theosophical Society, December, 1921 by Annie Besant, C. Jinarājadāsa, J. Krishnamurti, G.S. Arundale 1922

In His Name 1923

The Reign of Law, Buddhist Essay 1923

Opening Address of Mr. Jinarajadasa, Vice-President of the Theosophical Society, at the Eighth Congress of the Federation of T. S. National Societies in Europe, Vienna, 21st to 26th July, 1923 1923

The Early Teachings of the Masters 1923 – available on-line at: http://hpb.narod.ru/EarlyTeachings.htm

The Law of Christ 1924

The Wonder Child: (A Sequel to Flowers and Gardens) 1924

The Hindu Doctrine of the Atman: A lecture by C. Jinarajadasa, delivered on May 11th 1924 1924

Theosophy the Interpreter: Being three of the four convention lectures delivered at Benares, at the forty-eighth anniversary of the Theosophical Society, December 1923 1924

The Golden Book of the Theosophical Society: a brief history of the Society’s growth from 1875-1925 1925 (Editor)

The Non-existence of a Personal God 1925

Letters from the Masters of the Wisdom, Second Series 1926

Some Documents in the History of the T.S. 1927

The Divine Vision: Three lectures delivered at the Queen’s Hall, London, and one lecture delivered at Palermo, Italy 1928

Offering 1928

The Spiritual Factor in National Life: Being four lectures delivered in Sydney under the auspices of the Blavatsky Lodge, Theosophical Society, in May, 1924 1928

“I Promise”: Talks to Young Disciples 1928

Theosophy and Theosophists 1929

The Gods in Chains: Lectures and addresses delivered in South and Central America, 1928-29 1929

The Bhagavad Gita 1930

Lecture Notes 1930

The Personality of H.P. Blavatsky 1930

Krishnamurti’s Message 1930

Gautama the Buddha 1930

Art as a Factor in the Soul’s Evolution 1930

The God Without and the God Within 1930

The Ritual Unity of Roman Catholicism and Hinduism 1930

The Personality of H.P. Blavatsky 1930

The Future of the Theosophical Society 1931

The Flame of Youth: addresses to young people 1931

Karma-less-ness: Theosophical essays on art 1932

The Moors in Spain 1932

A Short Biography of Dr. Annie Besant 1932

Goethe’s Faust, Analysed in a Series of Incidents in Successive Incarnations 1932

The New Humanity of Intuition 1933

A World in Distress: The remedy as seen by the Theosophist 1933

Conventions of the Indian Constitution 1933 – available in digital form on-line at: https://archive.org/details/conventionofthei035507mbp

Did Madame Blavatsky Forge the Mahatma Letters? 1934

Life! More Life!: Discourses on a theosophist’s vision of life and its possibilities, delivered in Europe, Brazil and Costa Rica 1933-34 1934

Abul Fazl and Akbar 1934

The Nature of Mysticism 1934

The World of Christ in the World Today 1934

The Ritual of the Mystic Star: A form of service for worship and consecration 1935

Unfolding the Intuition 1936

Theosophy as Beauty by G.S. Arundale, S.R. Devi and C. Jinarajadasa 1936

Occult Investigations. A Description of the Work of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater 1938

The War- and After: A Theosophist’s viewpoint, presented to fellow Theosophists, at the headquarters of the Theosophical Society, Adyar, Madras, December, 1939 1940

Is and Is-to-be 1941

The Return of Julius Caesar 1941

The “K.H.” Letters to C.W. Leadbeater 1941 (Editor)

The Soul’s Growth Through Reincarnation: The Lives of Erato and Spica 1941 (Editor)

Women in Freemasonry 1943

The World as Idea, Emotion, and Will 1943

Release 1944

Economics and Theosophy: Summaries of three lectures to Theosophical conventions 1944

The Meaning and Purpose of the Ritual of the Mystic Star 1945

The Story of the Mahatma Letters 1946

The Work Ahead for Theosophists: Inaugural address delivered on February 17, 1946 1946

The Soul’s Growth Through Reincarnation: The Lives of Orion 1946 (Editor)

The Administration of the Theosophical Headquarters at Adyar, Madras 1946

The Law of Christ: Sermons by a Buddhist at the Church of St. Alban (Liberal Catholic) Sydney 1947

Clairvoyant Investigations by C.W.Leadbeater, Some Facts Described by Ernest Wood 1947 (Editor) – text available on-line at: http://www.katinkahesselink.net/his/wood1.html

Work for the World Mother 1948

The Soul’s Growth Through Reincarnation: The Lives of Ursa, Vega and Eudox 1948 (Editor)

What Theosophists Believe 1948

The Master: Meditations in Verse 1948

Bharata Samaj Puja (A Ritual of Congregational Worship, giving a Translation in English of the Sanskrit Ritual) With a Description of its Occult Effects as Seen by Clairvoyance by C.W. Leadbeater 1948 (Introduction and notes)

Buddha and His Message 1948

Krishnamurti and Buddhist Teachings 1949

The Round Table. Addresses to Youth 1950

H. P. B. Speaks. Vol I 1950 (Editor)

The School of the Wisdom 1950

The Soul’s Growth Through Reincarnation: The Lives of Ulysses, Abel, Arcor and Vale 1950 (Editor)

H. P. B. Speaks. Vol II 1950 (Editor)

The Two Miniatures 1951

The Occult Centre for the Southern Hemisphere 1951

The Ritual of the Mystic Star: A form of service for worship and consecration, with rubric of directions and illustrations 1951

Occult Chemistry: Investigations by clairvoyant magnification into the structure of the atoms of the periodic table and of some compounds by Annie Besant and C. W. Leadbeater 1951 (Editor)

The Law of Sacrifice 1951 (with C.W. Leadbeater)

The Seven Veils Over Consciousness 1952

On the Liberal Catholic Church: Extracts from letters of C.W. Leadbeater to Annie Besant, 1916-1923 1952 (Editor)

Practical Theosophy 1952

Collected Poems of C. Jinarajadasa 1953

My Brother – The Light!: Poems 1953

Discourses on the Bhagavad Gita 1954

Art as Will and Idea 1954

What Theosophists Believe 1966

Biography of Annie Besant 1971

This is not a complete bibliography. Details of additional works will be very gratefully received so that they can be included in a revised bibliography.

Jinarajadasa also published a number of articles of particular value for the study of Leadbeater’s life and work, including:

“New Investigations into Occult Chemistry”, in Theosophic Messenger, January, 1908

“Investigations into Early Rounds'”, in The Theosophist, August and September, 1911

“Some Notes on Orthodox and Occult Chemistry”, in The Theosophist, March, 1913

“The Scientific Basis of C.W. Leadbeater’s Contribution to Theosophy”, in The Theosophist, February, 1919

“The Contribution of C.W. Leadbeater to Theosophy'”, in Theosophy in Australia, February 1, 1920

“Occult Chemistry”, in The Theosophist, July, August and September, 1925

“C.W.L.”, in The Liberal Catholic, February, 1927

“What H.P.B. Thought of C.W. Leadbeater”, in The Theosophist, February, 1927 *

“Random Occult Investigations”, in The Theosophist, January, 1927

“The Theory as to World-Teachers”, in World Theosophy, February, 1931

“C.W. Leadbeater’s Theosophical Jubilee”, in Australian Theosophist, February, 1933

“Occult Chemistry”, in The Theosophist, August, 1933

“The Liberal Catholic Church and the Theosophical Society”, in The Theosophist, June, 1933

“The Beginning of English Co-Masonry”, in The Theosophist, January, 1934

“The Ritual of the Mystic Star”, in The Disciple, February, 1935

“Occult Investigations”, in The Theosophist, March, April, May and June, 1938

“Dr Besant’s First Occult Investigations”, in The Theosophist, October, 1941

“The Rite of Memphis”, in Morning Star, October, 1943

“Krishnamurti in 1926”, in The Theosophist, July, 1948

“Bharata Samaj Puja”, in The Theosophist, August, September, and October, 1948

“The Mars and Mercury Controversy”, in The Theosophist, September, 1951

“The Rite of Memphis”, in The Theosophist, December, 1951



Curuppumullage Jinarājadāsa

Curuppumullage Jinarājadāsa was born on December 16, 1875 in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) of Sinhalese Buddhist parents in a town about fifteen miles south of the capital city, Colombo.  His father was Kuruppullage Don Hendrik of the Wellala caste in Colombo, and his mother was Kuruppullage Selestina Perera Bambarendige. The Wellala (Tamil: Vellālā) caste was the highest caste in Singhalese Tamil society.


From The Theosophist “C. Jinarājadāsa, 1875-1958. Commemorative Issue, Vol. 74, No. 11, August 1953

At the age of eleven Jinarājadāsa enrolled in the English School of Boys in Colombo which was established under the patronage of Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera at No. 61 Maliban Street, Colombo, on 1 November 1886 by the Buddhist Theosophical Society. Leadbeater was the first Principal (1886–1890). The school later became Ananda College (Sinhala: ආනන්ද විද්යාලය) in August 1895.


Leadbeater initially abducted Jinarājadāsa from his parents in 1889 to take him to England – see https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/09/11/the-abduction-of-jinarajadasa-2/ and https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/09/28/leadbeater-jinarajadasa-and-the-criminal-law-of-ceylon/ – but eventually obtained their permission to take him to England, supposedly so that he could receive a good education and return to promote the revival of Buddhism in his native land. Jinarājadāsa received an excellent education in England, but did not return to Ceylon for more than a short period, pursuing, instead, a career in the Theosophical Society.


Having persuaded Olcott (then President of the Theosophical Society) and A.P. Sinnett that he should return to England, Leadbeater was given a position as tutor to Sinnett’s son Percy Edward (“Denny”) Sinnett (1877-1908), and George Arundale (1878-1945). Leadbeater took Jinarājadāsa with him, and they lived with the Sinnetts, and Leadbeater taught “Denny” with the two others boys. For “Denny” Sinnett, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2017/01/10/denny-sinnett/

In 1889, Jinarājadāsa met Madame Blavatsky for the first time. On March 14, 1893 he became a member of the Theosophical Society through the London Lodge.

Following a financial disaster, Sinnett was unable to continue to employ or accommodate Leadbeater, and he had to obtain alternative accommodation and employment. See: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/07/03/sinnett-on-leadbeater-jinarajadasa-and-besant/  Jinarājadāsa gives an account of that period in The “K.H.” Letters to C.W. Leadbeater Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1941:68-69 –

During the eleven years of my life with him in England, from 1889 to 1900, when he provided for me and for my education, life was not smooth. He had no means of his own, and had to earn his living first as a tutor to Mr. Sinnett’s son, then as a teacher giving English lessons to foreigners in London, and later as a journalist on the staff of the London office of the Pioneer newspaper of India. There was a period when his income was so low, that he and I lived in a tiny room, for which seven shillings were paid for rent. It had just enough room for two beds and a table and a couple of chairs and a box or two and a wash-stand. His considerable collection of books was tied up in bundles and placed under the two beds. I had my classes to attend and he his lessons to give or his office to go to. My share was to look after our very modest housekeeping. I recall a day when the only money in hand was one half-penny, though a few shillings were expected in the evening. Fortunately he had still some good clothes left, for it was de rigeur that at the meetings of Mr. Sinnett’s Lodge, the

London Lodge, of which Mr. Leadbeater was secretary, all should be in full evening dress. There were occasions when his dress suit and gold watch were pledged with the pawn-broker. In the “outer world”, there were ups and downs for him…

In 1895 Mrs. Besant invited Leadbeater and Jinarājadāsa to join the Headquarters Staff, which was then established in her house at 19 Avenue Road, St. John’s Wood, and they resided there until she sold the lease at the end of the century.

Leadbeater claimed, after he returned to England with Jinarājadāsa, that Jinarājadāsa was the reincarnation of his (Leadbeater’s) younger brother, Gerald. See: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/09/11/3089 and https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/11/28/brother-gerald-revisited/

Jinarājadāsa became a student of Cambridge University, in 1896, having been admitted as a non-collegial student in 1895. He “migrated” to St John’s College as a “pensioner” on October 19, 1896. See: J.A.Venn (comp.) Alumni Cantabrigienses part II vol III 1752-1900 Cambridge University Press, 1947:574. He graduated in December 1900 with a Bachelor’s Degree in the Oriental Languages Tripos. He was awarded a Masters of Arts in 1913. He had intended to study Law, but as a result of ill-health he missed the examinations. He was coxswain of the Lady Margaret Rowing Club boat in the rowing team.


He returned to Ceylon where he became Vice-Principal (1900-1901) of Ananda College in Colombo, but in 1902 he returned to Europe to study literature and science at the University of Pavia, Italy, and to assist in the work of the Theosophical Society in Italy. In 1904 he went to America, beginning a long career as an international lecturer of the Theosophical Society.


In 1906 Jinarājadāsa’s membership of the Theosophical Society was suspended by Colonel Olcott, then the President of the Society, for his public defence of Leadbeater in the wake of the allegations of sexual abuse of boys by him. Jinarājadāsa was fairly quickly restored to membership, although not by Olcott, who had sought to do so but had died before he could, but by Olcott’s successor, Besant.

In 1907 Jinarājadāsa began working with Leadbeater and Besant on their clairvoyant research, including that on “occult chemistry”. See: C. Jinarājadāsa Occult Investigations. A Description of the Work of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater (1938).

He lectured in the USA 1908-1911, and then returned to Adyar where he was introduced to Krishnamurti and Nityananda, serving as their companion and tutor in England until the end of 1913.


Jinarājadāsa was a high ranking member of the secret ritualistic Order of the Temple of the Rosy Cross, founded by in 1912 by Besant, Marie Russak and James Wedgwood. When the Temple was closed down at the direction (via Leadbeater) of the Master in 1914, Jinarājadāsa was directed to develop and alternative, but public, ritual. This he eventually did in the Ritual of the Mystic Star: see The Ritual of the Mystic Star: A Form of Service for Worship and Consecration (1935). See: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/07/20/the-ritual-of-the-mystic-star/

In 1915 Jinarājadāsa met Miss Dorothy Graham (1881-1963) in Adyar, and they travelled to England to be married in November, 1916. Krishnamurti and Nityananda attended the wedding, and Krishnamurti commented that he thought the marriage “most extraordinary; he is the last person I would have thought of as getting married.” As Mary Lutyens commented; “Indeed, the idea of an initiate marrying was deeply shocking to most theosophists, many of whom had ruined marriages by abstaining from sex.” Mary Luytens Krishnamurti. The Years of Awakening John Murray, London, 1975:97


It was intended to be a celibate marriage. Jinarājadāsa was an initiate and, as Mrs Besant had declared: “For an initiate, sex is impossible.” Jinarājadāsa and his wife were both members of the E.S. and, at that time, members of that organization were required to abstain from sexual relations. The marriage seems to have ended following Arundale’s election as President of the Theosophical Society after Besant’s death in 1933. Mrs Jinarājadāsa died in London on 13 January 1963.

For Dorothy Jinarājadāsa, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2017/02/21/dorothy-jinarajadasa/

Jinarājadāsa was one of the founding members of the Order of the Brothers of Service, together with his wife and Fritz Kunz, and served as its secretary from the time the order was formed on April 7, 1917 until the Order became dormant in 1930.

Jinarājadāsa served as Vice President of the Society, from 1921 to 1928, during the presidency of Besant.

Jinarājadāsa travelled extensively lecturing on Theosophy. He was able to do so in English, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.


In 1925, in the revelations “brought through” by Arundale, Jinarājadāsa was declared to be an Arhat, and to be one of the “Twelve Apostles” who would work with the coming World Teacher (through the body of Krishnamurti) – see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/06/07/the-new-apostles/

In 1930 Jinarājadāsa’s Italian connections proved of value to Leadbeater in the establishment of the Egyptian Rite – see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/05/10/the-egyptian-rite/  The Sovereign Sanctuary of the Rite of Memphis at Palermo was headed by a Theosophist, Reginald Gambier Macbean (1859-1942), who had become the Grand Master of the Sovereign Sanctuary in 1921 while serving as the British Consul for the Compartimento of Sicily and the Sicilian Island and Italian correspondent for the press agency Reuters. Macbean, originally a 33rd degree Mason of the French jurisdiction, had become a Co-Mason, and had admitted Jinarājadāsa, Leadbeater, Wedgwood, Arundale and Oscar Kollerstrom to the Rite of Memphis and, when the Palermo Sanctuary was suppressed by Mussolini, transferred his rights in it to those five brethren, and issued a formal charter for the Egyptian Rite.

Jinarâjadâsa was editor of The Theosophist, for several months in 1917; in 1931-33; and in 1946–53. He also served as director of the Adyar Library and Research Centre, 1930-1932 and 1935, and worked on organizing the archives of the Society, and in publishing archival materials.

Following Besant’s death in 1933, Jinarājadāsa declined to accept nomination to succeed her as President of the Theosophical Society, and thereafter undertook extensive lecture tours in Europe and South America. During World War II, he spent most of his time in England.

During the election campaign for the presidency of the Theosophical Society which followed the death of Besant in 1933, Mrs Jinarājadāsa campaigned for Ernest Wood against George Arundale. Following his election, Arundale suspended Mrs Jinarājadāsa’s membership of the Egyptian Rite, of which he had become Grand Master in succession to Leadbeater, and evicted her and Jinarājadāsa from the apartment that they had occupied on the Adyar estate.

For a few years beginning in 1934, Jinarājadāsa was Head of The Manor in Sydney.

Jinarājadāsa was elected President after the death of George Arundale in 1945. He declined to be re-nominated in 1953 due to ill-health, but continued in office until his death on 18 June 1953 in the USA. Jinarājadāsa was Outer Head of the Esoteric School of Theosophy from 1934 (following Leadbeater’s death) until his death.


Following the election of Nilakanta Sri Ram (1889–1973 as Arundale’s successor as President of the Theosophical Society in February 1953, Jinarājadāsa travelled to the American headquarters of the Society in Wheaton, Illinois, where he died on 18 June, 1953.


Dorothy Jinarajadasa

One of the very interesting, if peripheral, characters in the Leadbeater drama was May Dorothea (Dorothy) Jinarajadasa (nee Graham)(1881-1963) who married Leadbeater’s close disciple, Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa (1875-1953) in Kensington (London) in 1916.

Mary (or May) Dorothea (or Dorothy) Graham was born on 19 March 1881, the daughter of George Frederick Graham, a company secretary, and Margaret Helier Graham, and was baptised in the Church of St Mary, Wavertree, near Liverpool, on 15 May 1881. Various forms of her first names – May or Mary, Dorothea or Dorothy – appears on official documents, but she was generally, in her Theosophical career, known as Dorothy.


Jinarajadasa met Miss Graham in Adyar, and they travelled to England to be married in November, 1916. Krishnamurti and Nityananda attended the wedding, and Krishnamurti commented that he thought the marriage “most extraordinary; he is the last person I would have thought of as getting married.” As Mary Lutyens commented; “Indeed, the idea of an initiate marrying was deeply shocking to most theosophists, many of whom had ruined marriages by abstaining from sex.” Mary Luytens Krishnamurti. The Years of Awakening John Murray, London, 1975:97

Jinarajadasa appears to have considered his marriage as one of the “crucifixions” he experienced during his life. See: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2017/02/20/jinarajadasas-crucifixions/

It was intended to be a celibate marriage. Jinarajadasa was an initiate and, as Mrs Besant had declared: “For an initiate, sex is impossible.” Jinarajadasa and his wife were both members of the E.S. and, at that time, members of that organization were required to abstain from sexual relations. Whether the “crucifixion” related to Jinarajadasa’s thwarted desire for sexual relations with his wife (which seems unlikely), or from her desire for sexual relations with him is unclear, although Russell (Dick) Balfour Clarke, who lived at Adyar when the Jinarajadasas resided there, said that Mrs Jinarajadasa’s obvious sexual interest in men, including him, was well known and embarrassing.

Miss Graham (as she then was) had travelled to India with Mrs Besant and Margaret Cousins (1878-1954), the Anglo-Irish suffragist and Theosophist, in 1916 and the three of them co-founded the Women’s Indian Association (WIA) in Adyar.


Margaret Cousins – for whose work before moving to India see: https://womanandhersphere.com/tag/margaret-cousins/ and for whose work in India see: http://www.indiancultures.in/margaret-cousins/ and Kumari Jayawardena The White Woman’s Other Burden: Western Women and South Asia During British Rule Routledge, 1995 – Chapter 10: “‘Blazing the Trail for Indian Womens’s Freedom’. Margaret Cousins in India”

For the WIA, see: Mark Bevir “Mothering India” History Today Vol. 56, No. 2, February 2006:19-25; Geraldine Forbes Women in Modern India Cambridge University Press, 1996:72-75

This association was started at Adyar, Madras on 8 May 1917. The founding members of this organization were Annie Besant, Margaret Cousins and Dorothy Jinarajadasa. It was the first organization to create an overall awakening among women and to train them to shoulder their responsibility in public services and bind them together for mutual service and the good of the country. It was also concerned with influencing government policy on women’s suffrage and issues related to educational and social reforms. Since its inception the Women’s Indian Association was involved in political matters. The presence and leadership of Mrs. Annie Besant provided an impetus to women to think in terms of political freedom. In 1917, Annie Besant stimulated the Home Rule movement in Tamil Nadu. Women’s Indian Association (WIA) branches proposed that equal treatment and status should be given to Indians. They also supported to compulsory primary education for girls and Hindu women’s inheritance laws. Describing themselves as the “Daughters of India”.

From: Mrs. R. Kalaivani “Works of Women’s Indian Association (WIA) & Role of Annie Besant” International Journal for Social Studies Vol. 2 Issue 1 January 2016:91-96.

See also The Inspiring Saga of Women’s Indian Association, 1917- 1967 Women’s Indian Association, 1967.

Mrs Jinarajadasa served as a Justice of the Peace for Madras.

Mrs Jinarajadasa was one of the first members of the Theosophical Order of the Brothers of Service, along with her husband and Fritz Kunz. A later post will outline the history and work of the Order.

She accompanied her husband on his many international lecture tours, and lived in Sydney with him when he was staying in Australia.

Jinarajadasa served as Vice-President of the Theosophical Society from 1921 to 1928, and was elected President after the death of George Arundale in 1945. He declined to be re-nominated due to ill-health in 1953, but continued in office until his death on 18 June 1953 in the USA. Jinarajadasa was Outer Head of the Esoteric School of Theosophy from 1934 (following Leadbeater’s death) until his death.


Mrs Jinarajadasa with Leadbeater

During the election campaign for the presidency of the Theosophical Society which followed the death of Besant in 1933, Mrs Jinarajadasa campaigned for Ernest Wood against George Arundale. Following his election, Arundale suspended Mrs Jinarajadasa’s membership of the Egyptian Rite, of which he had become Grand Master in succession to Leadbeater, and evicted her from her house on the Adyar estate.

Mrs Jinarajadasa died in London on 13 January 1963.

Following Jinarajadasa’s death, a commemorative issue of The Theosophist was published: Vol. 74, np. 11, August 1953. This contains no reference to Mrs Jinarajadasa: even though it details lecture tours by Jinarajadasa on which she accompanied him, and no mention is made of her elsewhere. The article, “C. Jinarajadasa – Feminist” makes no references to Mrs Jinarajadasa’s work for the liberation of women in India.