The Lauder Report

Colonel William Lauder was one of a number of distinguished people who were members of the Theosophical Society in England in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Many such people resigned or dropped out of the Society during two periods of crisis. The first occurred when Leadbeater, following his resignation in the wake of the 1906 scandals in the USA, was permitted to return to membership the second occurred during controversy over the relationship of the Liberal Catholic Church to the Theosophical Society, and scandals involving its clergy, notably James Ingall Wedgwood in the early 1920s.

Various documents were circulated during the latter period – including “The Farrer Confession”, “The Gauntlett Statement”, “The Martyn Letter” – detailing sexual allegations against Wedgwood and some of his clergy. Copies of all of those still exist, but one document which received virtually no mention, and seems to have disappeared without trace, was “The Lauder Report”.

Colonel Lauder had been asked by a number of eminent members of the Society, anxious to know the truth of the allegations against Wedgwood and some of his clergy, to undertake an investigation, which he did. Although it is known that his findings confirmed the truth of the allegations, his report seems to have disappeared without trace. It would make very interesting reading should a copy ever be found.

colonel-lauder

William Bernard Lauder (1864-1924) was a distinguished military officer, and a member of the Theosophical Society in England. He was also one of the pioneers of the establishment of Co-Masonry in England. He joined the Army in 1903 and had risen to the rank of Colonel by the time of his death when he was Chief Paymaster of the Royal Army Pay Corps in the War Office, and Officer-in-Charge of the Royal Army Pay Corps Records. His military service was recognized in 1918 when he was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) and again in 1924 when he was made a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)(Military Division).

Lauder married Eveline Christine Jane Lauder (nee Wright) (1871-1943) in 1897. Their son, Ian Connaill Anthos William Lauder (1904-1962), who followed his father into a military career, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and being awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) in 1946 for his military service in Borneo. I am grateful to Leslie Price for making the photograph of Colonel Lauder, in Co-Masonic regalia, available.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brother Gerald – Revisited

Leadbeater claimed that he had a younger brother, Gerald, who was born seven years after Leadbeater – see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/09/11/3089/  The supposed existence of Gerald was first made known to Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa (1875-1953) when Leadbeater took him (Jinarajadasa) from Ceylon to England in 1889. Leadbeater claimed that Jinarajadasa was the reincarnation of Gerald who had died fifteen years prior to Jinarajadasa’s birth.

There would seem to be some insurmountable problems with claims of Gerald’s existence.

Two chronologies are possible, one using the false birth date (1847) always given by Leadbeater after about 1890:

1847    Leadbeater born

1854    Gerald born

1858-1859 Leadbeater and parents in Brazil (according to Oliveira’s account – see below)

1858-1862 Leadbeater, Gerald and parents in Brazil (according to Leadbeater’s account) (although the 1861 census records them as lodgers in the house of a Mr William Henry Allen, a railway clerk, in Brompton, London, when the census was taken on Sunday, April 7th 1861 – see below)

1862    Gerald murdered (aged about 5)

1862    Leadbeater and his parents return to England

1877    Gerald reborn as Jinarajadasa in Ceylon

The other chronology, uses the birth date (1854) given in all official records, and in Leadbeater’s own census returns, up until the census of 1891:

1854    Leadbeater born

1861    Gerald born

1861-2 Leadbeater and parents in Brazil (although Oliveira claims that the evidence shows Leadbeater, his father and mother (without any other child) were in Brazil 1858-1859)

1862    Gerald murdered (aged about 2)

1862    Leadbeater and his parents return to England (although the 1861 census records them as lodgers in the house of a Mr William Henry Allen, a railway clerk, in Brompton, London, when the census was taken on Sunday, April 7th 1861)

1877    Gerald reborn as Jinarajadasa in Ceylon

1. When was Gerald born?

Assuming that Gerald existed, he was either born in 1861 or 1854.

There is no record that any child other than Charles Webster Leadbeater was born to Charles and Emma Leadbeater in the period 1840-1870, or being born to any father and mother named Charles and Emma Leadbeater, or to any parent named Leadbeater. None of the major international genealogical search engines produces any result for “Gerald Leadbeater”. Presumably, if Gerald was around 7 in 1858, he was born around 1851 (leaving aside the fact that this means he was older than his older brother); there is no record for Gerald Leadbeater in the 1851 or 1861 British census, and the 1861 census return submitted by Leadbeater’s father reports only one child, Charles Webster Leadbeater.

2. Did Gerald go to Brazil with Leadbeater and his parents?

The hagiographical website published by Pedro Oliveira – http://www.cwlworld.info/ – has published claims that the Leadbeater family travelled to Brazil: http://www.cwlworld.info/CWL_in_Brazil.pdf and http://www.cwlworld.info/From_Southampton_to_Bahia_and_Back_Again.pdf and stated: Certificates issued by the Public Archive in Bahia, dated 2 February 2007, attest the arrival of Charles Leadbeater, his wife and one young son on board of the steamship “Tamar” 30 May 1858, from Southampton in England, and their departure on board of the steamship “Tyneon” 13 June 1859, bound for Southampton. Both Certificates were issued based on the contents of Passenger Lists of that period.

He published an on-line copy of a shipping manifest showing the arrival in Salvador, on 30th May 1858, of Charles Leadbeater, his wife and one child:

https://familysearch.org/wiki/pt/Brasil,_Bahia,_Porto_de_Salvador,_Listas_de_Passageiros_(Registros_Históricos_do_FamilySearch

cwl-ship-manifest-bahia

3. When did Gerald die?

According to Leadbeater’s account, Gerald was murdered in Brazil in 1862.

There is no record in the British records of deaths of its citizens abroad of anyone named Leadbeater. No British press reports have been located reporting the murder of a British child in Brazil, 1860-1870.

And the 1861 census records them as Leadbeater, his father and mother in the house of a Mr William Henry Allen, a railway clerk, in Brompton, London, when the census was taken on Sunday, April 7th 1861.

4. What about “Saved by a Ghost. A True Story of an Adventure in Brazil, Near Bahia, 1861-1862”?

Leadbeater’s story about his alleged time in Brazil is found in “Saved by a Ghost. A True Story of an Adventure in Brazil, Near Bahia, 1861-2” published in The Theosophist Vol 32, January 1911:502ff. It was also published in The Theosophic Messenger (USA) Vol 12, March 1911:376ff and subsequently published as an off-print edited and annotated by Jinarajadasa with the title Saved by a Ghost. A True Record of Adventure in Brazil, Near Bahia, 1861-1862, of Charles Leadbeater (Senior), Charles Webster Leadbeater, and Gerald Leadbeater, “Theosophist Office” Bombay, 1911, and then included in a collection of Leadbeater’s short stories, The Perfume of Egypt and Other Weird Stories Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1911.

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The text of The Perfume of Egypt is available on-line at: http://www.anandgholap.net/Perfume_Of_Egypt-CWL.htm

Presumably, if the account was not “A True Record”, Leadbeater had every opportunity to correct it, or at least to prevent the second edition (1912) being published. The published account can be supplemented by notes left by Jinarajadasa and A.J. Hamerster in the Theosophical Society Archives at Adyar. Jinarajadasa also undertook research in Brazil in an attempt to confirm the details, but did not report any success.

Leadbeater claimed that he and his family – father, mother and younger brother, Gerald (aged 7) – were in Brazil between 1858-62: the exciting adventures described in his short story, “Saved by a Ghost”, allegedly occurred in 1861-2. Biographical notes made by A.J. Hamerster and corrected by Leadbeater (who wrote to Hamerster acknowledging the accuracy of his account) record the family being in Brazil from around 1858 to 1862, and a “Memo for a Biography of C.W.L.” written by Jinarajadasa on the basis of information given to him by Leadbeater states that the family went to Brazil in 1858 and returned to London in 1862. However, the 1861 British Census return, submitted on Sunday, April 7th, shows Leadbeater and his parents in England: Charles Leadbeater (35), who described himself as a “railway clerk”, his wife Emma (39) and their son, Charles W. (7) were lodgers in the house of a Mr William Henry Allen, a railway clerk, in Brompton, London.

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Unless it is claimed that the father, as a railway clerk, took his family to Brazil around 1858, returned with them to London for the 1861 census, and then returned to Brazil for the “Saved by a Ghost” adventure, but came back to London to die on June 17, 1862 (his widow reported his death, describing her husband as “book-keeper for a railway contractor”), the story must be regarded as fantasy or fraud.

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5. Was Gerald’s behaviour in Brazil “age appropriate”?

Even allowing Gerald to have been a very precocious child, was his behaviour, as described by Leadbeater, probable or even possible in a child aged about 5 (taking Leadbeater’s claim to have been born in 1847) or about 2 (taking the date of Leadbeater’s birth as given in official records to be 1854)?

According to Leadbeater’s “True Record of Adventure in Brazil”:

  • With Leadbeater and his father (but without his mother) and Gerald travelled into the jungle known to be populated by “savages”, “Red Indians”.
  • Gerald always carried a “tiny revolver” with him when he went out.
  • During an attack “he shot at least two of the savages, besides wounding another”.
  • When Leadbeater, his father and Gerald are captured by the rebel General Martinez, Gerald is commanded to trample on a cross, but refuses saying: “I will not do it. You are a very wicked man,” whereupon Martinez kills him with his sword.

Leadbeater’s Family: The Maternal Line

This outline of the descent of Leadbeater’s mother will doubtless require revision and correction as more sources are located. Most family research begins with information provided by a family member. Given that Leadbeater provided very little information about his family background, and that almost all the information he provided was false, genealogical research has proved challenging.

The information given by Leadbeater to Jinarajadasa, which Jinarajadasa recorded in note form and used to prepare a basic family tree, was essentially, inaccurate.

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Comments or corrections on the following material will be very welcome, as will suggestions for further research on this topic: gregory1@pacific.net.au

Leadbeater’s maternal great grandfather was George Morgan who married Elizabeth.

Leadbeater’s maternal grandfather was Webster Morgan (1782-1833) who, in 1812, married Mary Ann Edwards (1788-?) in Manchester Cathedral.

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They had issue:

James Tomlinson Morgan (1812-1899) (who sometimes used the middle name “Thomas”) who, in 1841, married Marianne Shaw (1821-?). They had issue:

(i) Lilias Morgan (1843-1904) who became a school teacher, and in 1882 married the Reverend Cockburn Peel Marriott (1835-1909), an Anglican clergyman and school teacher, and the son of the Reverend George Marriott. He had graduated from Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (BA 1857, MA 1861) and been ordained (Deacon 1857, Priest 1858). Marriott has previously been married to Ellen Marsh (Hamber) Marriott (1823-1877) and they had two daughters, Mary and Annie, and one son, Charles.

(ii) Josiah John Morgan (1846-1908) who became a civil engineer.

Emma Morgan (1821-1882) who, in 1853 at St Jude’s Church in West Derby, married Charles Leadbeater (1825-1862).

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They had one child: Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854-1934)

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leaedbeater-and-mother

Leadbeater and his mother

 

Leadbeater’s Family: The Paternal Line

This outline of the descent of Leadbeater’s father will doubtless require revision and correction as more sources are located. Most family research begins with information provided by a family member. Given that Leadbeater provided very little information about his family background, and that almost all the information he provided was false, genealogical research has proved challenging.

The information given by Leadbeater to Jinarajadasa, which Jinarajadasa recorded in note form and used to prepare a basic family tree, was essentially, inaccurate.

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Comments or corrections on the following material will be very welcome, as will suggestions for further research on this topic: gregory1@pacific.net.au

Jinarajadasa recorded that Leadbeater’s grandfather was Charles John Leadbeater; official records show that his name was John Leadbeater. The adjustment of name was probably made in support of Leadbeater’s claim that, his paternal family being descended from Charlemagne (also known as Charles the Great, Holy Roman Emperor 800-814AD), the first born son in every generation was named “Charles”.

Jinarajadasa recorded that John Leadbeater married three times, having two children – Charles (Leadbeater’s father) and “Lizzie” – by his first wife, and four children – Jane, Mary, Amy and Annie – by his second, and one (unnamed) child by his third wife. It was also claimed that John Leadbeater had married his third wife in the USA. English official records show that Charles (Leadbeater’s father), “Lizzie”, Jane, Mary, Amy and Annie were the children of John Leadbeater and his wife, Mary, and that he was married only once.

Leadbeater’s paternal great grandfather was Peter Leadbeater (1776-1844) who in 1793 married Mary Ann (Hargrove)(1770-1853).

Leadbeater’s paternal grandfather was John Leadbeater (1795-1860) who was married in 1834 at Walton-le-Dale to Mary Livesey (1821-1901?). Mary was the daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Livesey.

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John Leadbeater described himself in different ways on different documents – usually as salesman or manufacturer. He appears to have been a local Wesleyan Methodist preacher in Manchester at one time, describing himself “Trustee, Leader, Preacher and Secretary to the Local Preachers’ Meeting of the Manchester Third Circuit”. [Van Akin Burd (ed) The Winnington Letters. John Ruskin’s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the Children at Winnington Hall Belknap Press, 1969:50]

John and Mary Leadbeater had issue:

Elizabeth Carter (1824 – died in infancy).

Charles (1825-1862) He married Emma Morgan (1821-1882) on May 26, 1853 in St Jude’s Church, West Derby.

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He was the father of Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854-1934), his only child. Leadbeater claimed that he had a brother, Gerald, seven years younger, who was murdered in Brazil around 1862, but there are no records of any such brother.

Mary Ann (1827-1836 died in childhood).

Elizabeth Carter (1833-1890) By the 1841 census she was living away from her family in lodgings in Blackburn. Unmarried. Her sister, Mary, wife of Canon W.W. Capes, was the executor of her estate.

Jane Livesey (1836-1904) In the 1851 census she was shown as a pupil at Miss Margaret Bell’s school, Manchester. Evidence of her attendance at Miss Bell’s school is found in the census records and in Van Akin Burd (ed) The Winnington Letters. John Ruskin’s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the Children at Winnington Hall Belknap Press, 1969:111. For Margaret Bell and the Leadbeater sisters, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/miss-bell-and-the-leadbeater-aunts/

In 1870 she married Reverend Robert Henniker (1833-1880); son of Aldborough Brydges John Henniker (1797-1880); son of Lt.-Gen. Sir Brydges Trecothic Henniker, 1st Bt., who became a Lieutenant-General in the Army and was created a Baronet in 1813. He had been the son of John Henniker, 1st Baron Henniker (1724-1803), known as Sir John Henniker, 2nd Baronet, from 1782 to 1800, a British merchant and Member of Parliament.

Rev. Robert Henniker, was Rector of Alnwick, Northumberland; Chaplain to the Duke of Northumberland; and Headmaster of Rossall School at Fletwood, Lancashire from 1869-1875. He and his wife had five children: Eleanor Margaret (1860-1920); John (1862-1914), Robert Percy (1864 -1896); Frederick Chandos (1866 -1953); and Allen Major (1870 -1949). Frederick Chandos Henniker gained the rank of Captain in the service of the Cambridgeshire Regiment (Territorial Army) and served in the Indian Civil Service. One of his sons was Brigadier Sir Mark Chandos Auberon Henniker, 8th Bt.

For Jane Leadbeater, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/05/27/the-transformation-of-aunt-jane/

Mary Ann (1837-1908) In 1851 she was a pupil at Miss Margaret Bell’s school, Manchester, and by 1871 she was a teacher at Miss Bell’s school, Winnington. Evidence of her attendance at and teaching at Miss Bell’s school is found in the census records and in Van Akin Burd (ed) The Winnington Letters. John Ruskin’s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the Children at Winnington Hall Belknap Press, 1969:111. For Margaret Bell and the Leadbeater sisters, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/miss-bell-and-the-leadbeater-aunts/  In 1870 she married the Reverend William Wolfe Capes (1834-1913).  They had no children. For Capes, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/04/26/william-wolfe-capes/

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Fanny (1838-1847 died in childhood).

Emily (1840-1880) In 1861 she was a teacher at Miss Margaret Bell’s school, Winnington. Evidence of her teaching at Miss Bell’s school is found in the census records and in Van Akin Burd (ed) The Winnington Letters. John Ruskin’s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the Children at Winnington Hall Belknap Press, 1969:111. For Margaret Bell and the Leadbeater sisters, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/miss-bell-and-the-leadbeater-aunts/

By 1871 she was Governess for the Reverend James Allen Wilson (1827-1917) M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, Rector of Bolton-by-Bolland, Yorkshire, and Honorary Canon of Ripon, and his wife, Catherine. She died in 1880. Unmarried. Canon W.W. Capes, husband of her sister, Mary, was her executo

Annie (1843-1906) In 1861 she was a pupil at Miss Bell’s school, Winnington. Evidence of her attendance at Miss Bell’s school is found in the census records and in Van Akin Burd (ed) The Winnington Letters. John Ruskin’s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the Children at Winnington Hall Belknap Press, 1969:111. For Margaret Bell and the Leadbeater sisters, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/11/08/miss-bell-and-the-leadbeater-aunts/ By the 1891 and 1901 censuses, she was in retirement in West Macclesfield, living on own means. Unmarried.

Lucy (1845 died in infancy)

Mary Dodge: Theosophical Benefactress

Amongst the numerous curious instructions of the Masters “brought through” by George Arundale in 1925 was a requirement that Liberal Catholic Bishops and Priests wear only silk underwear. Many of the Bishops and Priests, especially Frank Pigott whose only income was a small stipend from the Church, found this an all but impossible financially burdensome. So an approach was made to the extraordinarily wealthy Theosophical benefactress, Miss Mary Dodge, to provide the funds necessary for such eccentric ecclesiastical garments. She, for once, declined to provide money for a supposedly Theosophical cause.

As Lady Emily Lutyens recalled of her friend, Mary Dodge:

…I regret to say that in my opinion her generosity was a great factor in the degeneration of the T.S. Until then, those who worked for the Society were inspired by spirit of self-sacrifice – they worked for love – but with the advent of Miss Dodge’s fortune a new spirit crept in. The wildest schemes were financed by her, and salaries were given to all who worked at headquarters.

Lady Emily Lutyens Candles in the Sun Rupert Hart-Davis, London, 1957:34

Miss Mary Melissa Hoadley Dodge was a very rich American friend of Lady Emily Lutyens (1874-1964), who settled an income of five hundred pounds a year for life on Krishnamurti, who continued to receive her allowance until his death, and three hundred pounds a year on his brother, Nityananda.  She also settled an income on Mrs Besant, and gave Lady Emily Lutyens one hundred pounds a year so that she could travel on Theosophical business. Miss Dodge also provided financial support for the Theosophical Society and contributed some £30,000 to the construction of its London headquarters in Tavistock Square, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, husband of Lady Emily Lutyens. The building is now BMA House, the headquarters of the British Medical Association.

For much of her Theosophical life, Miss Dodge lived in London, sharing her house with another upper-class Theosophist, Muriel, Countess De La Warr, nee Brassey (1872-1930), daughter of Lord Thomas Brassey, who had divorced her husband Gilbert Sackville, 8th Earl De La Warr in 1902.

Miss Dodge and the Countess both provided accommodation for the brothers Krishnamurti and Nityananda when they went to live in England from India, first in the Countess’ house Old Lodge in Ashdown Forest, then in her flat at Robert Street, Adelphi, and then in the house of Miss Dodge on West Side Common. Miss Dodge also paid for the purchase of some 2.5 hectares (6 acres) of land at Ojai, California, for use by the Theosophical Society.

Miss Dodge was one of six children and she, like her sister Grace Hoadley Dodge, remained unmarried and lived with her parents for several years. To seek some independence she moved to London, England; her father supported her decision and purchased a house for her in Brompton Square. Dodge moved from Brompton Square to the more fashionable Eaton Square, and then, in 1907, to Warwick House in the precinct of St James’s Palace, a large house with 20 rooms. She employed an extremely large household. She initially had had a female companion from New York, Julia Schreiner, who later married the English diplomat, Sir Robert H. Greg. Miss Dodge also had a house in Wimbledon called West Side House.

Mary Melissa Hoadley Dodge (1861-1934) in 1861 in New York, New York, USA, to Sarah Tappan Hoadley and William Earl Dodge. William E. Dodge (1832-1903) was one of two controlling partners in the Phelps Dodge Corporation, one of the largest copper mining corporations in the United States. Her grandfather was David Hoadley, the president of the Panama Railway Company. It was generally, although inaccurately, assumed that she was the heiress to the Dodge car empire.

Miss Dodge suffered greatly from rheumatoid arthritis and became confined to a wheelchair. Despite her great wealth, she experienced considerable financial losses during the Depression. She sold her houses in London and eventually moved to Wick Hall, Hove, on the south coast of England in about 1930, where she died in 1934, leaving some three million dollars (US), mainly to family and friends.

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Melissa_Hoadley_Dodge

 

Leadbeater’s Age

Interestingly, but unsurprisingly, the question of Leadbeater’s age never seems to have been raised during his lifetime or until 1982 when my biography of him was published. Even his most savage of enemies simply accepted the false birthdate given by him.

It is, however, interesting to note that in the January 1933 issue of Shishya, a private, or more accurately, secret publication of the Esoteric Section details of a discussion between Besant, Leadbeater, George Arundale, Rukmini Arundale and Jinarajadasa on January 23, 1933, are published.

Besant asked Leadbeater whether he was older than her, and he replied that he was older than her in body, but not as a soul. Mrs Besant responded: “Charles is the oldest of us – oldest and wisest.”

Besant was born on 1 October 1847. Leadbeater, according to the false date he promulgated, was born on 17 February 1847, making him around eight months older than Besant. Leadbeater was in fact, born on 16 February 1854.

An Artist at The Manor: Ethel Carrick

A surprising number of eminent figures in the worlds of art, literature, music, architecture, social reform and even politics in Australia were influenced by Theosophy. That influence was really not explored in scholarly writing until the publication of Jill Roe’s Beyond Belief. Theosophy in Australia 1879-1939 (1986), but in the past twenty years Theosophical influence in Australia has been considered in a range of works.

One of the artists strongly influenced by Theosophy was Ethel Carrick (1872-1952). Although British-born, she was widely considered to be an Australia both because her husband was Australian, and because she lived for very long periods in Australia.

[The wife of Emanuel Phillips Fox (1865-1915), artist and art teacher] Ethel Carrick Fox (1872-1952) was born on 7 February 1872 at Uxbridge, Middlesex, daughter of Albert William Carrick, a well-established draper, and his wife Emma, née Filmer. After education at home she joined the Guildhall School of Music, and later trained with Francis Bate and at the Slade School of Fine Art under Brown and Tonks. After her husband’s death she remained in Melbourne until 1916, then lived mostly abroad, travelling extensively in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. She returned to Australia in 1925, 1933, 1940, 1948 and 1952, arranging exhibitions of their work and painting in several of the cities and along the rivers of northern New South Wales.

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She first showed her work in London in 1903 and later exhibited widely in Britain, France and Australia. She was one of a group of Australian women artists who sought to establish themselves in Paris and London through joint exhibitions in Europe in the 1920s. By 1908 Carrick Fox was a member of the Union Internationale des Beaux-Arts et des Lettres; in 1911 she became sociétaire of the Salon d’Automne, later an associate of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and prior to 1913 was the vice-president of the International Union of Women Painters. In 1928 she won the diploma of honour at the International Exhibition of Bordeaux.

Apart from her energetic organization of various artistic undertakings in Australia during both world wars, she fought for the recognition and placement of her husband’s art in major Australian galleries and criticized the limited inclusion of Impressionist works in the National Gallery of Victoria. Her works are lively and colourful: she painted market scenes, parks and flower gardens, beach and Arab scenes, genre interiors and especially flower pieces. Interesting and urbane, Ethel Carrick Fox possessed a strong and independent personality. She was an Anglican, but in the 1940s joined the Theosophical Society in Sydney. Before her death in a Melbourne hospital on 17 June 1952 she had lived at the Lyceum Club in Melbourne. Her marriage was childless.

http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/fox-ethel-carrick-6366

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Ethel Carrick, On Balmoral Beach, Sydney (1913). Oil on canvas on board, 26cm x 34cm

Carrick’s life was just as colourful as her art. Born in 1872, she graduated from London’s famous Slade Art School. She became fascinated by the work of Monet and Pissarro and produced impressionist views which were shown at London’s Royal Academy. After her marriage to Australian Emanuel Phillips Fox she settled in Paris with her husband. Paris was the centre of the art world ‑ young artists such as Picasso and Matisse were increasing the role of colour in art. Carrick, more daring than her husband, exhibited with Matisse and Derain, abandoning Impressionism in favour of the colourful linear style we now call Post-Impressionism. She and Emanuel painted in France and in North Africa before sailing to Melbourne. There she soon realised that her Jewish in-laws saw her as a shiksa, an outsider, They could not forgive her childless state and her belief that dignity in marriage depended on the woman’s financial independence. Hurt by their rejection, Carrick went to stay in a Theosophical commune at The Manor, Mosman, led by a handsome, scandal-prone guru, where she painted beach scenes around Sydney Harbour.

http://www.susannadevries.com/ethel_carrick_fox.html

Carrick joined the Theosophical Society, probably in London, but certainly a member when she travelled from Melbourne to live with various eminent Theosophists who lived on the north-shore of Sydney in 1913. She subsequently lived for extensive periods after 1922 at The Manor, Leadbeater’s Theosophical community in Clifton Gardens, a north-shore suburb of Sydney.

Carrick also lived for a period at the Theosophical Society’s headquarters in Adyar (India) and travelled to various holy places in India in the company of the actor, Edith Lorimer, and a young boy being cared for by Lorimer who would later become famous as an actor, Peter Finch. Finch returned to Australia with Lorimer and Carrick, and spent almost a year living at The Manor.

scan_20161111-3Susanna de Vries Ethel Carrick Fox: Travels and Triumphs of a Post Impressionist Pandanus Press, Brisbane, 1997:135

Carrick returned to Adyar in 1933, and was probably present when Leadbeater officiated at the funeral and cremation ceremonies for Annie Besant.

Carrick died in Melbourne in 1952 and was buried according to the rites of the Liberal Catholic Church, of which she had been a member almost from the Church’s beginning in Australia, conducted by the Reverend John Farquharson

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Susanna de Vries Ethel Carrick Fox: Travels and Triumphs of a Post Impressionist Pandanus Press, Brisbane, 1997

De Vries work includes a chapter entitled: “Ethel Carrick Fox and Theosophy – Was her Guru a Saint or a Golden Idol with Feet of Clay?” [pp.131-138] Although the author credits my biography of Leadbeater as the primary source for her work on Leadbeater, she does not, alas, always use material from the biography accurately.

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Angela Goddard Art, Love and Life: Ethel Carrick and E Phillips Fox Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, 2011

….tells the story of an artistic marriage and partnership, one of the most significant in Australian art. Both were painters of modern life at the turn of the last century, and the exhibition will explore the inflections of life and society in their work, from bustling scenes of markets and beaches, to intimate views of families, women and children. Born in Australia, Emanuel Phillips Fox (1865-1915) married the English painter Ethel Carrick (1872-1952) in 1905 and, over the next decade, they lived in the centre of Paris, travelling through Europe, North Africa and Australia in search of exotic subjects for their expressive paintings. After Phillips Fox died suddenly in 1915, Carrick continued her career, tirelessly promoted her late husband’s work and continued to thrive on adventurous travel.

The Parish of Bramshott

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Leadbeater in 1882 as Curate of Bramshott, Hampshire, England

To understand Leadbeater’s life as an Assistant Stipendiary Curate (really the lowest rung on the Anglican ecclesiastical ladder) in the Parish of Bramshott, it is necessary to understand the Parish and Anglican church life within the Parish.

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Bramshott Parish Church from W.W. Capes Scenes of Rural life in Hampshire Among the Manors of Bramshott London, Macmillan, 1901

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Bramshott Parish Church in 1857 from Roger Chatterton Newman A Hampshire Parish. Bramshott and Liphook Frank Westwood, Petersfield HANTS, 1976

The essential basis for such an understanding is Chapter Six: “The age of Canon Capes” in:

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Roger Chatterton Newman A Hampshire Parish. Bramshott and Liphook Frank Westwood, Petersfield HANTS, 1976

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William Wolfe Capes (1834–1914), the husband of Leadbeater’s aunt Mary (1837-1908), was appointed as Rector of Bramshott when he was 35 years of age, and already established as a prominent academic, and served as Rector for 32 years during which he facilitated and enabled the parishioners to adapt to major change. The parish tradition refers to “The Age of Canon Capes”, and still sees him as representing “the golden age of the Victorian Parish Priest”.

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From Roger Chatterton Newman A Hampshire Parish. Bramshott and Liphook Frank Westwood, Petersfield HANTS, 1976: 114

Capes facilitated major changes in school education in the Parish, expanded the size of the Parish church, and built four houses for Curates on the Headley Road from Liphook, including Hertford Cottage, where Leadbeater (and, initially, his mother) lived.

Capes had a number of Curates, including Leadbeater (1878-1884). Newman’s history is in error when it lists the only Curates at the time as having been Daniel Fleming Wilson Quayle (1872) who preceded Leadbeater as Curate and A.B. Cartwright (1884-1889) who succeeded him. At the same as Leadbeater was ordained, John Wallace Kidston (1851-1926)   was also ordained and appointed Curate of Bramshott. Kidston graduated from Queen’s College, Oxford, from which institution he held a Bachelor of Arts (1873), a Master of Arts (1876), and a Bachelor of Civil Law (1876). He was admitted as a Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln’s Inn in 1878.

Kidston was born in Glasgow, Scotland, and was married to Mona Margaret Noel in 1880. He shared Hertford Cottage with Leadbeater and his mother until he married, when he then lived in Short’s House, Headley Road, Bramshott and served as Curate of Bramshott, 1879-1883. He was a Barrister at Law of Lincoln’s Inn, 1878. He served as Rector of Hampton Poyle, 1883-5; Vicar of Upton Grey, Hampshire, 1885-1889; and Rector of Weyhill, Hampshire, 1889-1897.

One can understand that Leadbeater felt isolated within the Parish. Both the Rector and the other Curate were highly academically qualified men. Capes, despite his manifest commitment to the care of the people in his Parish, spend much of his time in University work at Oxford, or in writing academic works. Leadbeater would seem to have had very little in common with either the Rector or the other Curate. His own accounts, and that of one of his favourite boys in the Parish, Jim Matley, suggest that he had to create work for himself with various activities for young people, especially boys, and had more than adequate to travel out of the Parish for his explorations of psychical phenomena and spiritualism and, later, Theosophy. It would have been obvious to him that he had no real hope of advancement in the Church.

For Leadbeater’s work with young people in the Parish, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/10/16/the-matley-account-of-bramshott/

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For a history of early Bramshott, see: W.W. Capes Scenes of Rural life in Hampshire Among the Manors of Bramshott London, Macmillan, 1901. Digital version available on-line at: https://archive.org/details/scenesofrurallif00capeuoft

For Canon Capes, see: https://cwleadbeater.wordpress.com/2016/04/26/william-wolfe-capes/

The History of the (Adyar) Theosophical Society

Unfortunately, no detailed scholarly history of the Theosophical Society with its headquarters at Adyar (India), from the period after the separation of William Judge and his followers from Annie Besant and her followers after Blavatsky’s death in 1891, has (yet?) been published.

The existing published sources are internal works, flawed by careful omission of much controversial material, and, notably, largely avoiding any reference to what (to use a term favoured by Leadbeater) might be called “the inner side” of the history of the (Adyar) Theosophical Society, particularly the important role of the Esoteric Section (or the Eastern School).

The existing sources are:

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Jinarajadasa The Golden Book of the Theosophical Society. A Brief History of the Society’s Growth from 1875-1925 Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1925

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Josephine Ransom A Short History of the Theosophical Society, 1875-1937 Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1938

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Josephine Ransom The Seventy-fifth Anniversary Book of the Theosophical Society, 1926-1950 Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1950

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Josephine Maria Ransom (nee Davies) (1879-1960) was an Australia who joined the Theosophical Society in 1897, and was the manager of the Theosophical Publishing House in Adyar for a time. From 1924-1926, she was General Secretary of the Australian Section; of the South African Section from 1926-1927; and then of the English Section from 1933-1936. She was nominated as International Vice-President of the Society in 1960, but died in a motor accident before taking office.

Ransom was meticulous in detailing the facts of the history of the Theosophical Society, but avoided giving much attention to controversial matters, and seemed to have no interest in the broader picture of the Society’s history.

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Some useful material can be found in the series of The International Theosophical Year Book published during the presidency of George Arundale by the Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1937-1940(?).

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Joy Mills 100 Years of Theosophy in America Theosophical Publishing House, Wheaton ILL, 1987 provides a basic history of the Adyar Theosophical Society in America, but clearly written from the perspective of an insider, and with very little controversial material.

Miss Bell and the Leadbeater Aunts

Leadbeater’s account of his life up until he joined the Theosophical Society in 1884 – as he wrote about it, and as he told Besant, Jinarajadasa and Hamerster about it – contained many mysteries, all of them the consequences of the fantasies that he confected or, to be less charitable, the lies that he told, for his own aggrandisement. Thus, his father who was a cashier for a railway company living in a Stockport slum, became the Chairman of the railway company who, having mixed with the social, literary and artistic elite of London, retired to a country estate, Lea Green Hall, where his son was born. Most of the mysteries of his early life have been unveiled.

However, more mysteries remain regarding his family background. Research in this area is complicated by the fact that Leadbeater gave very little information about that background, and that what he disclosed was (probably inevitably) essentially untrue. Presumably, having fabricated a fraudulent version of his early years, he could hardly disclose too much of the truth about his family lest further inquiries brought the whole house of cards down.

Leadbeater’s grandfather, John Leadbeater (1795-1860) and his wife, Mary, had ten children, of whom four died in infancy or childhood.

One Leadbeater family mystery relates to the marriages of two of Leadbeater’s aunts: Jane Livesay Leadbeater (1836-1904) and Mary Anne Leadbeater (1837-1908). They both married eminent Anglican clergyman, much removed from the family backgrounds and social class of their father, John Leadbeater (1795-1860) – a man who described himself as a “sweep” in his marriage bans and had to mark the document with an “X” because he was illiterate. Leadbeater’s father, also named Charles, was a cashier for a railway company living in a Stockport slum. How did his sisters rise so rapidly and so far in the social scheme of things?

The mystery is at least partly explained by the intervention of a remarkable woman educator, Margaret Alexis Bell (1818-1889). Miss Bell was born in Glasgow on 17 June 1818, the daughter of the Reverend Alexander Bell (1789-1851), a Wesleyan preacher, and his wife, Margaret, and was baptized in on 15 September 1818 in the Wesleyan Church in Glasgow.

In 1851 Miss Bell was the principal of a school, Victoria Hall, Rusholme, Lancashire, at which both Jane and Mary Leadbeater were pupils. It seems unlikely, given the family circumstances, that their father could have afforded a private education for his daughters.

By 1861, Miss Bell had adopted Mary as her child, and took her on as a teacher at the school, Winnington Hall, run by Miss Bell, her sister, Mary Anne, and her friend Miss Mary Jane Hall. The school opened on 27 July 1851. Also described as a teacher at the school was Mary’s sister, Emily. Another sister, Annie (1842-?) was described as a scholar at Winnington Hall in 1861.

Miss Bell had been raised in the tradition of northern Methodism, but had become a liberal Anglican, and cultivated exceptional contacts in the world of art and literature. Winnington Hall was a “finishing school” for girls, and attracted the support of and visits from some of the leading figures of the literary, artistic and musical world of the time.

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“Girls at Winngton Hall”, artist unknown

Sir Charles Halle (1819-1895), Anglo-German pianist and conductor, and founder of The Hallé orchestra in 1858, used to visit to give recitals. John Ruskin (1819-1900), the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist, gave lectures, supervised the girls’ musical studies and gave instruction on the Bible, geology and art. Ruskin helped the school financially, and had his own room in the house, which became for him a “semi-permanent residence”. Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones (1833-1898), the British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris, designed a series of wall hangings to be embroidered by the girls.

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John Ruskin (1819-1900)

Ruskin engaged in a lengthy correspondence with Miss Bell, some of it about the girls at the school, and also wrote often to the Leadbeater sisters, complaining at times to Miss Bell about their failure to reply to his letters.

In the late 1870s the school went into bankruptcy and closed.

In 1859 Jane Leadbeater married the eminent and upper-class clergyman, the Reverend Robert Henniker (1833-1880), son of Aldborough Brydges John Henniker (1797-1880), son of Lt.-Gen. Sir Brydges Trecothic Henniker, 1st Baronet, who became a Lieutenant-General in the Army and was created a Baronet in 1813. Robert Henniker was the Rector of Alnwick, Northumberland; Chaplain to the Duke of Northumberland; and Headmaster of Rossall School at Fletwood, Lancashire from 1869-1875.

In 1870 Mary had married the Rev William Wolfe Capes (1834-1913), Fellow of Queens College, Oxford, and Rector of Bramshott. Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford, as well as bursar, fellow, tutor and reader of The Queen’s College, Oxford. Capes was the author of a significant number of scholarly works, including: The Roman Empire of the Second Century; or, The age of the Antonines (1876); University Life in Ancient Athens (1877); Livy: An Account of His Life and Works (1879); Stoicism (1880); and The English Church in the 14th and 15th Centuries (1900).

It was through the patronage of Canon Capes that Charles Webster Leadbeater was accepted for ordination in the Church of England in 1978, and appointed a Curate in Capes’ Parish of Bramshott. He was thus able to move out of a period of short-lived jobs as a commercial clerk, and he and his mother relocated from a poor working class area of London to the comfort of a cottage in rural Hampshire.

By 1871 Emily had become a Governess and was working for the family of the Reverend (1827-1917) M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, Rector of Bolton-by-Bolland, Yorkshire, and Honorary Canon of Ripon, his three daughters and two sons.

How was the link between the Leadbeater sisters and Miss Bell established? It was probably a result of an association between Miss Bell’s father, the Reverend Alexander Bell, and John Leadbeater who had been involved in the Wesleyan Methodist mission in Manchester.

Charles Leadbeater remained in the industrial slums of Stockport and in poor, working class tenancies in London, and in menial jobs, while his aunts, Mary, Jane and Emily, received an exceptional private education, and were introduced into the company of some of the leading figures in the world of art, music and literature of the time before “marrying well” (Mary and Jane) or taking on a respectable profession (Emily).

The story of Mary, Jane and Emily Leadbeater is an intriguing one, and may offer at least part of the explanation for Leadbeater’s imaginative recreation of his family history and early life. If only an eccentric benefactor had given the attention to his father that his three aunts had received, the fictional life Leadbeater created might have been the fact.

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see: Van Akin Burd (ed) The Winnington Letters. John Ruskin’s Correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the Children at Winnington Hall Belknap Press, 1969

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[Winnington Hall]...a former country house in Winnington, now a suburb of Northwich, Cheshire.

For some years the hall was used as a girls’ finishing school under Miss Margaret Alexis Bell and Miss Mary Jane Bell, where Sir Charles Hallé visited to give recitals and John Ruskin gave lectures. Ruskin helped the school financially, and had his own room in the house, which became for him a “semi-permanent residence”. He instructed the 35 girls on subjects such as the Bible, geology and art, supervised their music, and watched them play cricket. In 1863 Ruskin invited Edward Burne-Jones to the school, and together they devised a project to create a set of wall hangings based on characters from Chaucer’s poem The Legend of Good Women. The figures were to be designed by Burne-Jones and embroidered by the girls in the school under the supervision of Georgiana, Burne-Jones’ wife. Embroidery frames and wool were purchased, and work began on one of the figures. However the work proved to be too ambitious, and the project was abandoned. Later, during the 1870s, the school became bankrupt, and closed.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winnington_Hall